Which is the correct group associated with attitude research?| Sociology for CUET by Vikash Ranjan | Sociology Guru

Attitude Research


Question: Which is the correct group associated with attitude research?

  1. Thurstone. Likert, Guttman
  2. Veblen, Thurstone, Likert
  3. McDougall, Guttman, Tonnies
  4. Festinger, Likert, Marshall

Answer: (1)

Attitude research is a vital component of social science inquiry, aiming to understand individuals’ thoughts, opinions, and predispositions towards specific targets or issues. Attitudes, in this context, refer to evaluative judgments or affective responses that individuals hold toward a particular subject. To measure and quantify these attitudes, researchers employ various scales and methods, and the scholars mentioned in option (a) have made significant contributions to the development of such scales.

Attitude measurement scales play a pivotal role in associating numerical values with respondents’ behavior and thoughts. The concept of unidimensional scales, where attitudes are measured along a single dimension, is fundamental to this process. Several well-established attitude scaling techniques, including Likert, Guttman, Bogardus, and Thurstone, provide structured frameworks for constructing surveys and gauging attitudes.

Let’s delve into the contributions of Thurstone, Likert, and Guttman in the realm of attitude research:

Thurstone Scale:

Creator: Robert Thurstone, a psychologist.

Development: Thurstone developed the scale as an attempt to align the interval scale of measurement with attitude scaling. He aimed to create a scale with statements that appeared at equal intervals, allowing for a nuanced understanding of respondents’ attitudes.

Characteristics: The Thurstone scale presents respondents with a set of statements, and individuals are asked to rate these statements based on their agreement or disagreement. The key innovation was the use of equal-interval scaling, providing a more refined measurement of attitudes.

Likert Scale:

Creator: Rensis Likert, a social psychologist.

Development: Likert introduced the scale as a method for gauging attitudes and opinions in a systematic manner. The Likert scale is a widely used tool for attitude measurement, particularly in survey research.

Characteristics: The Likert scale typically consists of a series of statements or items, and respondents express their agreement or disagreement on a scale, often ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree.” The scores are then assigned numerical values, facilitating quantitative analysis of attitudes.

Guttman Scale:

Creator: Louis Guttman, a sociologist.

Development: Guttman developed the cumulative or scalogram approach, known as the Guttman scale, in the mid-20th century. The goal was to create a scale that reflected a cumulative order of difficulty or agreement on a particular topic.

Characteristics: In a Guttman scale, a series of statements are arranged in a hierarchical order based on the level of agreement they represent. Respondents who agree with a particular statement are assumed to agree with all preceding statements on the scale, reflecting a cumulative understanding of the attitude being measured.

The significance of these scales lies in their ability to provide a structured and systematic framework for measuring attitudes. Whether it’s the nuanced equal-interval scaling of Thurstone, the widely adopted Likert scale with its ordinal measurement, or the cumulative order approach of Guttman, each scale contributes to the methodological toolkit available to researchers studying attitudes.

Returning to the answer (a) Thurstone, Likert, Guttman, it accurately identifies the scholars associated with key attitude measurement scales. Together, Thurstone, Likert, and Guttman have significantly influenced the field of attitude research, offering researchers diverse tools for understanding and quantifying the complex landscape of human attitudes.

Attitude research is instrumental in a wide array of disciplines, including sociology, psychology, marketing, and political science. Scholars and practitioners continue to leverage these attitude measurement scales, adapting and refining them to address evolving research questions and societal changes. The choice of the correct group associated with attitude research in the MA CUET exam aligns with recognizing the foundational contributions of Thurstone, Likert, and Guttman to the understanding and measurement of attitudes in social science research.

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Frequently Asked Questions:

1. Question: Define the term “ethnic movement” and provide an example from India.

Answer: An ethnic movement refers to a collective effort by a group sharing common cultural, linguistic, or religious traits, seeking to assert their identity and rights; an example from India is the Khalistan Movement in Punjab.

2. Question: Identify the main objectives behind the Gorkhaland ethnic movement.

Answer: The Gorkhaland ethnic movement primarily seeks to establish a separate state for India’s Nepali-speaking population in the Darjeeling region, advocating for linguistic and cultural recognition and political autonomy.

3. Question: What was the Operation Blue Star, and which ethnic movement was it related to?
Answer: Operation Blue Star was a military action in 1984, aiming to remove Sikh militants hiding in the Golden Temple in Amritsar; it is related to the Khalistan movement, which sought a separate Sikh country.

4. Question: Mention a critical factor that triggered the emergence of ethnic movements in India, as discussed by Dipankar Gupta.
Answer: Dipankar Gupta emphasized that ethnicity is fundamentally a political process, wherein caste and religion, the key components of identity formation, are politicized by leaders for vested interests.

5. Question: What were the primary reasons for the Assam Ethnicity conflicts involving Bodo tribals and Bengali Muslim settlers?
Answer: The Assam Ethnicity conflicts primarily stemmed from issues related to immigration, land rights, and resource allocation, leading to clashes, riots, and evolving relationships among indigenous communities to address challenges.

6. Question: Briefly describe the role of the Dravidian Movement in terms of caste and societal structure.
Answer: The Dravidian Movement, led notably by E.V. Ramasamy, aimed to establish an egalitarian society, focusing on anti-Brahmanism and advocating for equal rights for backward castes, while also introducing reforms like self-respect marriages.

7. Question: Name the prominent ethnic movements in North-East India and specify one common objective.
Answer: Prominent ethnic movements in North-East India include the Nagas’ and Mizos’ struggles; a common objective was to gain autonomy and recognition for their distinct tribal identities and cultural uniqueness.

8. Question: What is the key argument of Gail Omveldt regarding traditional Indian society and multiculturalism?
Answer: Gail Omveldt opposed romanticizing traditional Indian society, arguing that hierarchy has always dominated it and dismissing the notion that multiculturalism is an intrinsic feature of Indian society as a myth.

9. Question: Briefly explain the social hierarchy factor as a contributing element to ethnic movements as suggested by Olzak.
Answer: Olzak suggests that the construction of hierarchies among ethnic communities, which often leads to the suppression of one group by another, is a key factor that can instigate social and ethnic movements.

10. Question: Identify one consequence of the unequal economic development factor within the context of ethnic movements in India.
Answer: One consequence of unequal economic development is the marginalization and underdevelopment of certain groups, leading to feelings of alienation and sometimes initiating ethnic movements as these groups strive for equality and recognition.

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