Who divided the science of Sociology into two major parts-Social statics and Social dynamics?| Sociology for CUET by Vikash Ranjan | Sociology Guru

science of Sociology


Question: Who divided the science of Sociology into two major parts-Social statics and Social dynamics?

  1. Max Weber
  2. Karl Marx
  3. Saint Simon  
  4. Auguste Comte

Answer: (4)

Auguste Comte: The Father of Sociology

Auguste Comte (1798-1857) is often referred to as the “Father of Sociology.” He was a French philosopher, mathematician, and sociologist who made significant contributions to the development of sociology as a distinct scientific discipline. Comte’s work laid the foundation for the systematic study of society and social phenomena.

Division of Sociology: Social Statics and Social Dynamics

Comte’s division of sociology into two major parts, social statics and social dynamics, was a pivotal development in the early shaping of the field. These two branches of sociology represent different aspects of social order and change, and they continue to be important in understanding the complexities of society.

  1. Social Statics:

Definition: Social statics is concerned with the study of the ways in which the parts of a social system, or social structures, interact with one another. It focuses on the examination of the functional relationships between these parts and their contributions to the stability and equilibrium of the social system as a whole.

Key Emphasis: The central emphasis in social statics is on maintaining social order and understanding the fundamental laws that govern the stability of a society. This branch of sociology seeks to explore the structural components of society and their interconnections.

Analyzing Equilibrium: Social statics is particularly interested in identifying and analyzing the equilibrium of forces within a stable society. It addresses questions related to how the various elements of society work together to maintain a state of balance.

Examples: In the context of social statics, one might examine the role of family, religion, language, the division of labor, and other social structures in preserving social order and cohesion. Comte considered the family to be the most elementary unit of society, from which all other social units evolved.

Abstract Nature: Social statics often takes an abstract approach to sociology, focusing on the distinctive characteristics and properties of social structures rather than empirical, time-specific observations.

  1. Social Dynamics:

Definition: Social dynamics, on the other hand, is concerned with the study of change within society. It explores the forces and mechanisms that drive social development, evolution, and transformation.

Key Emphasis: The primary emphasis in social dynamics is on understanding the processes and factors that lead to social change. This branch of sociology seeks to analyze the dynamics of society and its evolution over time.

Adapting to Change: Social dynamics investigates how societies adapt to changing circumstances, technologies, ideologies, and other factors that influence their development.

Examples: Examples of social dynamics might include the study of societal changes brought about by industrialization, urbanization, technological advancements, cultural shifts, or political revolutions. Comte recognized the importance of studying the changes that societies undergo as they progress and adapt.

Empirical Approach: Social dynamics often involves empirical research and the analysis of historical and contemporary data to identify patterns of social change and development.

Significance of the Division:

The division of sociology into social statics and social dynamics holds significant importance in the field of sociology:

Comprehensive Understanding: This division allows sociologists to comprehensively study society from two essential perspectives: one that focuses on maintaining social stability and another that explores the factors contributing to social change. Both aspects are vital for a holistic understanding of social phenomena.

Analyzing Social Continuity and Transformation: By examining both social statics and social dynamics, sociologists can address questions related to how societies maintain continuity and tradition while simultaneously adapting and evolving.

Predicting and Managing Change: Understanding social dynamics enables sociologists to predict and manage societal changes. It helps in anticipating challenges and opportunities associated with transformations in society.

Relevance in Contemporary Sociology: The concepts of social statics and social dynamics continue to be relevant in contemporary sociology. Sociologists use these frameworks to study various aspects of society, including economic, political, cultural, and technological changes.

Interdisciplinary Approach: The division of sociology encourages an interdisciplinary approach, where sociologists collaborate with experts from various fields to address complex societal issues.


Auguste Comte’s division of sociology into social statics and social dynamics represents a significant development in the field of sociology. Social statics focuses on the maintenance of social stability and equilibrium, while social dynamics explores the forces and processes that drive social change and development. This division allows sociologists to examine both the enduring aspects of society and its capacity to adapt and evolve in response to changing circumstances. It remains a valuable framework for understanding the complexities of social phenomena and the ongoing transformation of societies.

Take a Quick Sociology Quiz to measure your Performance


Frequently Asked Questions:

1. Question: Define the term “ethnic movement” and provide an example from India.

Answer: An ethnic movement refers to a collective effort by a group sharing common cultural, linguistic, or religious traits, seeking to assert their identity and rights; an example from India is the Khalistan Movement in Punjab.

2. Question: Identify the main objectives behind the Gorkhaland ethnic movement.

Answer: The Gorkhaland ethnic movement primarily seeks to establish a separate state for India’s Nepali-speaking population in the Darjeeling region, advocating for linguistic and cultural recognition and political autonomy.

3. Question: What was the Operation Blue Star, and which ethnic movement was it related to?
Answer: Operation Blue Star was a military action in 1984, aiming to remove Sikh militants hiding in the Golden Temple in Amritsar; it is related to the Khalistan movement, which sought a separate Sikh country.

4. Question: Mention a critical factor that triggered the emergence of ethnic movements in India, as discussed by Dipankar Gupta.
Answer: Dipankar Gupta emphasized that ethnicity is fundamentally a political process, wherein caste and religion, the key components of identity formation, are politicized by leaders for vested interests.

5. Question: What were the primary reasons for the Assam Ethnicity conflicts involving Bodo tribals and Bengali Muslim settlers?
Answer: The Assam Ethnicity conflicts primarily stemmed from issues related to immigration, land rights, and resource allocation, leading to clashes, riots, and evolving relationships among indigenous communities to address challenges.

6. Question: Briefly describe the role of the Dravidian Movement in terms of caste and societal structure.
Answer: The Dravidian Movement, led notably by E.V. Ramasamy, aimed to establish an egalitarian society, focusing on anti-Brahmanism and advocating for equal rights for backward castes, while also introducing reforms like self-respect marriages.

7. Question: Name the prominent ethnic movements in North-East India and specify one common objective.
Answer: Prominent ethnic movements in North-East India include the Nagas’ and Mizos’ struggles; a common objective was to gain autonomy and recognition for their distinct tribal identities and cultural uniqueness.

8. Question: What is the key argument of Gail Omveldt regarding traditional Indian society and multiculturalism?
Answer: Gail Omveldt opposed romanticizing traditional Indian society, arguing that hierarchy has always dominated it and dismissing the notion that multiculturalism is an intrinsic feature of Indian society as a myth.

9. Question: Briefly explain the social hierarchy factor as a contributing element to ethnic movements as suggested by Olzak.
Answer: Olzak suggests that the construction of hierarchies among ethnic communities, which often leads to the suppression of one group by another, is a key factor that can instigate social and ethnic movements.

10. Question: Identify one consequence of the unequal economic development factor within the context of ethnic movements in India.
Answer: One consequence of unequal economic development is the marginalization and underdevelopment of certain groups, leading to feelings of alienation and sometimes initiating ethnic movements as these groups strive for equality and recognition.

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