Training given to a person for acquiring membership in a non-membership group is called?| Sociology for CUET by Vikash Ranjan | Sociology Guru

acquiring membership


Question: Training given to a person for acquiring membership in a non-membership group is called?

  1. Conformity
  2. Deviance
  3. Re-socialisation  
  4. Anticipatory socialization

Answer: (1)

The question pertains to the concept of training provided to an individual for acquiring membership in a non-membership group. This process is typically referred to as “anticipatory socialization.” Before we delve into the details of anticipatory socialization, let’s first define the other terms listed in the answer choices to ensure a comprehensive understanding.

(a) Conformity:

Conformity refers to the act of an individual changing their behavior, beliefs, or values to align with the expectations and norms of a particular group, authority figure, or society. It involves adapting one’s actions or mindset to fit the established standards and conforming to the behaviors considered acceptable within that context. Conformity is a common social phenomenon and can be observed in various social settings.

(b) Deviance:

Deviance, as discussed in the previous response, is a concept associated with behaviors, actions, or attitudes that diverge from the established norms, values, or expectations within a society. Deviance can take various forms, ranging from minor rule violations to more serious criminal activities. It is a central topic in the field of sociology and criminology, with scholars seeking to understand the causes and consequences of deviant behavior.

(c) Resocialization:

Resocialization is a process that involves radically altering an individual’s personality and behavior by carefully controlling their environment. It typically occurs within total institutions, where residents’ identities and independence are deliberately eroded, and a different personality or self is constructed through rewards and punishments. Examples of total institutions include the military for new recruits and the process of reintegrating former inmates into civilian life after prison. Resocialization is a more extreme form of socialization that aims to reshape an individual’s entire self.

(d) Anticipatory Socialization:

Anticipatory socialization is the process through which an individual prepares for future roles, behaviors, and memberships in groups or organizations. It occurs when individuals learn about the expectations, norms, and values associated with a role they anticipate taking on in the future. This form of socialization allows individuals to gain an understanding of what is expected of them in their anticipated roles and aids in their adjustment to new environments or groups.

Now that we have clarified the definitions of these terms, let’s focus on anticipatory socialization, which directly addresses the question.

Anticipatory Socialization:

Anticipatory socialization is a crucial aspect of the socialization process, which is the lifelong learning and adaptation to the norms, values, and expectations of society. It occurs when individuals engage in learning and preparation for roles they are yet to assume. This process is particularly relevant when an individual aims to acquire membership in a group or organization that has distinct cultural norms and practices.


Key points to understand about anticipatory socialization:

Future Roles: Anticipatory socialization prepares individuals for future roles, whether it be entering a new profession, joining a specific organization, or becoming part of a particular social group.

Learning Expectations: During anticipatory socialization, individuals acquire knowledge about the expectations, values, norms, and behaviors associated with their anticipated roles. They often learn from existing members of the group or organization, through formal training, or by observing and imitating role models.

Reducing Uncertainty: Anticipatory socialization helps individuals reduce uncertainty and anxiety about their upcoming roles. By gaining insights into what is expected, they can better prepare themselves for the transition.

Effective Adjustment: When individuals participate in anticipatory socialization, they are more likely to adapt effectively to their new roles and environments. This preparation can lead to a smoother transition and a faster integration into the group or organization.

Examples of Anticipatory Socialization:

College Admissions: High school students who are preparing for college often engage in anticipatory socialization. They attend college fairs, seek advice from current college students, and learn about the expectations and culture of their future educational institutions.

Job Interviews: Job seekers engage in anticipatory socialization when they research and prepare for interviews with potential employers. They learn about the company’s culture, values, and the role they are applying for to present themselves as suitable candidates.

Joining a Religious Group: Individuals considering converting to a new religion or joining a particular religious group engage in anticipatory socialization. They may attend services, study religious texts, and interact with members of the community to understand and align with the beliefs and practices.

Becoming a Parent: Expectant parents often read books, attend parenting classes, and seek advice from experienced parents to prepare for their new roles as caregivers.

Joining a Sports Team: Athletes who aim to join a sports team or participate in a particular sport engage in anticipatory socialization by learning the rules, techniques, and expectations associated with their chosen sport.

Anticipatory socialization is a dynamic process that helps individuals navigate life transitions and prepare for new roles, whether in education, employment, religion, or other areas. It equips them with the knowledge and understanding needed to adapt to the specific cultural and social norms of the groups or organizations they plan to join.

In summary, anticipatory socialization is the process of preparing for future roles and memberships in groups or organizations by learning about the expectations and norms associated with those roles. It reduces uncertainty, facilitates effective adjustment, and enhances the individual’s readiness to take on new responsibilities. This concept is integral to the broader field of socialization, where individuals continually adapt to the ever-changing expectations and dynamics of society and various social groups.

Take a Quick Sociology Quiz to measure your Performance


Frequently Asked Questions:

1. Question: Define the term “ethnic movement” and provide an example from India.

Answer: An ethnic movement refers to a collective effort by a group sharing common cultural, linguistic, or religious traits, seeking to assert their identity and rights; an example from India is the Khalistan Movement in Punjab.

2. Question: Identify the main objectives behind the Gorkhaland ethnic movement.

Answer: The Gorkhaland ethnic movement primarily seeks to establish a separate state for India’s Nepali-speaking population in the Darjeeling region, advocating for linguistic and cultural recognition and political autonomy.

3. Question: What was the Operation Blue Star, and which ethnic movement was it related to?
Answer: Operation Blue Star was a military action in 1984, aiming to remove Sikh militants hiding in the Golden Temple in Amritsar; it is related to the Khalistan movement, which sought a separate Sikh country.

4. Question: Mention a critical factor that triggered the emergence of ethnic movements in India, as discussed by Dipankar Gupta.
Answer: Dipankar Gupta emphasized that ethnicity is fundamentally a political process, wherein caste and religion, the key components of identity formation, are politicized by leaders for vested interests.

5. Question: What were the primary reasons for the Assam Ethnicity conflicts involving Bodo tribals and Bengali Muslim settlers?
Answer: The Assam Ethnicity conflicts primarily stemmed from issues related to immigration, land rights, and resource allocation, leading to clashes, riots, and evolving relationships among indigenous communities to address challenges.

6. Question: Briefly describe the role of the Dravidian Movement in terms of caste and societal structure.
Answer: The Dravidian Movement, led notably by E.V. Ramasamy, aimed to establish an egalitarian society, focusing on anti-Brahmanism and advocating for equal rights for backward castes, while also introducing reforms like self-respect marriages.

7. Question: Name the prominent ethnic movements in North-East India and specify one common objective.
Answer: Prominent ethnic movements in North-East India include the Nagas’ and Mizos’ struggles; a common objective was to gain autonomy and recognition for their distinct tribal identities and cultural uniqueness.

8. Question: What is the key argument of Gail Omveldt regarding traditional Indian society and multiculturalism?
Answer: Gail Omveldt opposed romanticizing traditional Indian society, arguing that hierarchy has always dominated it and dismissing the notion that multiculturalism is an intrinsic feature of Indian society as a myth.

9. Question: Briefly explain the social hierarchy factor as a contributing element to ethnic movements as suggested by Olzak.
Answer: Olzak suggests that the construction of hierarchies among ethnic communities, which often leads to the suppression of one group by another, is a key factor that can instigate social and ethnic movements.

10. Question: Identify one consequence of the unequal economic development factor within the context of ethnic movements in India.
Answer: One consequence of unequal economic development is the marginalization and underdevelopment of certain groups, leading to feelings of alienation and sometimes initiating ethnic movements as these groups strive for equality and recognition.

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